When pain is felt in the right upper abdomen, it is very important to stay calm and consult a medical professional. Many factors can cause this pain, but there is a possibility that it may be caused by gallbladder inflammation. When gallbladder inflammation is left untreated, it can cause gallbladder rupture, a serious and potentially life-threatening medical condition. Gallbladder ruptures are rarely caused by traumatic abdominal injury, gallstones, bacterial infections, ascariasis or bile sludge.
The main danger of gallbladder rupture is an infection that can lead to sepsis, and sepsis is a life-threatening condition in which the body creates an erratic response to the infection. Essentially, the body harms itself while trying to attack the infection. Also, sepsis can cause tissue damage, organ failure, and death, so medical treatment is essential when experiencing symptoms of cholecystitis. This article contains information about consumable sac rupture, its causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. In addition, there is information about the definition and usage stages of gallbladder radionuclide scanning.
What is Gallbladder Rupture (Rupture)?
The gallbladder is a small organ located near the liver and stores bile, a fluid produced in the liver. It also releases bile into the small intestine to help break down fats. A gallbladder rupture is a medical condition that means the gallbladder wall leaking or bursting. The tears are usually caused by inflammation of the gallbladder. This inflammation is caused by gallstones that can get stuck in the gallbladder. Infection also causes inflammation that can cause tearing and, in rare cases, injury. When the gallbladder ruptures, it causes sudden, severe abdominal pain, while the pain resolves shortly after the rupture. However, the pain often returns when the tear site with the leaky content becomes enlarged, inflamed, or infected. Untreated gallbladder rupture causes systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in the body. If there is an underlying infection with SIRS, also called sepsis, this type of infection is life threatening.
Causes of Gallbladder Rupture
Tears are usually caused by inflammation of the gallbladder or a blunt injury. There are causes of gallbladder inflammation that cause rupture and these reasons are as follows:
- Gallstones, which are the most common cause of inflammation
- Ascariasis caused by parasitic worms that can lead to biliary disease
- Bacterial infections such as those caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, or Streptococcus faecalis
- Bile sludge, a mixture of bile and particulate matter that can block the gallbladder
There are causes of blunt injury that can tear the gallbladder, and these reasons include:
- Motor vehicle accidents
- Falling by hitting the stomach
- Direct blows from contact sports such as football, wrestling or rugby
Symptoms of Gallbladder Rupture
Symptoms of rupture of the gallbladder should not be ignored. Immediate medical attention should be sought if any symptoms of gallbladder rupture occur. These symptoms are as follows:
- Nausea and vomiting
- Sharp pain in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen
- Yellowing of the skin and eyes
Diagnosing Gallbladder Rupture
Gallbladder rupture is difficult to diagnose because its symptoms are similar to those of gallbladder inflammation. When a person is diagnosed with gallbladder inflammation when it really comes to the point of gallbladder rupture, the wrong treatment may be in question. Various diagnostic tests are used to check for gallbladder rupture, examples of which are:
- Abdominal ultrasound
- Color flow Doppler ultrasound
- CT scan
Biliary scintigraphy (HIDA scan) using a radioactive material injected into the body monitored by a special camera
In addition, a series of blood tests are used to check for signs of inflammation that could be caused by a serious infection. These blood tests are as follows:
- White blood cell count
- C-reactive protein level
- Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
Along with imaging studies that show gallbladder disease, high levels in any of these tests indicate gallbladder inflammation, a risk for gallbladder rupture if there are positive symptoms and signs.
Gallbladder Rupture Treatment
Once the condition has been diagnosed, the best treatment is recommended and typically a diagnosis is followed with prompt treatment. Ideally, it is desirable to remove the gallbladder before it ruptures. If the gallbladder is removed after rupture, there is a higher probability of complications and is removed by laparoscopic surgery. This is a minimally invasive surgery using small incisions and special tools. Partial cholecystectomy is an option for people with significant inflammation or very fragile tissue that makes it difficult to remove the gallbladder completely.
Treatment is likely to be needed after surgery. This includes antibiotics to clear up the bacterial infection and a hospital stay to monitor the condition. A temporary slightly fatty diet is also required. It is possible to experience short-term difficulties in digestion and absorption of fat after gallbladder removal. Also, taking instructions for the care of surgical incisions at home and pain relief medications are given. Continuous antibiotic therapy may be recommended as a precaution against infection, and certain activities should be avoided for some time.
Gallbladder ruptures should be taken very seriously and bile should not be released into the abdominal cavity. One of the deadliest infection-related complications of gallbladder rupture is sepsis. In this case, if not treated quickly, the body may go into shock or the organs may shut down. In addition, people with a weak immune system are at higher risk of experiencing such complications.
Appearance of Gallbladder Rupture
The appearance is promising when the gallbladder is removed before it is ruptured. Not all tears occur in the same part of the gallbladder. Some tears make removal difficult, which increases the risk of developing infections. In addition, serious complications of rupture can be fatal. People with the right diagnosis and prompt treatment can make a full recovery.
Gallbladder Radionuclide Scan
Gallbladder radionuclide scanning is an imaging test that uses radiation to detect certain conditions, and these are:
• Bile leakage
• Obstruction in the gallbladder
The procedure uses radioactive tracers injected into the bloodstream, viewed under special imaging equipment. Gallbladder radionuclide scan is also called hepatobiliary imaging or hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid scan (HIDA).
Why is a Gallbladder Radionuclide Scan Performed?
A gallbladder radionuclide scan is performed to help detect potential problems with the gallbladder or nearby ducts. These problems are as follows:
- Bile duct obstruction
- Cholecystitis or gall bladder inflammation
- Bile leak
- Birth defects
In case of detection of birth defects, screening is performed in newborns or young children early in life. Also, the procedure is used to test the gallbladder ejection fraction, which is the percentage of total bile produced over a period of time. The rate of bile release of the gallbladder is also determined by this procedure.
Risks of Gallbladder Radionuclide Scanning
Although the radioactive tracers used in the screening are small, there is a risk of exposure to radiation at the time of this test. However, this test has been used for over 50 years. Such low radiation doses have no known long-term side effects, there is a chance of experiencing a rare allergic reaction that is usually mild. Also, pregnant women who are pregnant should not take this test. While the radiation levels emitted by the trackers are considered safe for adults, they are not safe for developing a fetus. Before accepting the screening, the doctor should be told if there is any possibility of being pregnant.