Various models are used to measure satisfaction in consumer satisfaction studies. These include the disapproval of expectations model, perceived performance model, rational expectations model, expectations-artificial model, association model, cognitive dissonance model, comparison level model, contrast model, and Kano model. Among others, there are planned behavior patterns, reasoned action models, technology acceptance models, and various extensions. Other models used in consumer satisfaction studies are the quality of service (SERVQUAL) model in various forms such as electronic quality of service (e-SERVQUAL), among others.
Expectation Model Not Approved
This model has been structurally developed in a series of two articles by Oliver. It is a cognitive theory that tries to define post-purchase or post-adoption satisfaction as a function of expectations, perceived performance, and disapproval of beliefs. In other words, it shows how the sum of product performance and customer expectation level affects customer satisfaction. The model suggests that satisfaction will increase in a situation where the perceived performance of a customer is judged to be higher than the expectations achieved. This is known as positive disapproval. However, when a perceived performance is lower than the customers’ expected level, the result is a satisfaction drop, hence a negative acknowledgment. Therefore, satisfaction is a function of the inequality between performance and expectations, and satisfaction is represented by a model of disapproval; predicts that satisfaction will decrease as expectations increase.
This literature review on the customer satisfaction model outlines that besides the job satisfaction literature, the expectation disapproval model has widespread support from academics in other fields and is often used in the evaluation and measurement of satisfaction with various products such as the hotel industry. In addition, in restaurant services, auto industry and stock exchange services, the disapproval model is rarely used in Internet marketing, sustainability marketing, health marketing and social marketing.
Perceived Performance Model
This model has deviations from the disapproval model because the role of expectation in the formation of satisfaction is less important. Conceptualize the theory that customers’ perceptions and expectations of certain product performance positively affect customer satisfaction. Performance is seen as the quality level of the product according to the price paid, from the perception of the customer. It is explained as the value of perceived performance, that is, the benefits gained to bear the costs. The higher the product capability with respect to cost, the more satisfied the customer.
Moreover, the perceived performance model is more applicable in scenarios where a product performs well and consumer expectations diminish in post-consumption relationships with the product. The model also depicts that the stronger the expectation of a customer regarding performance information, the greater the impact of expectations as a pivot in the satisfaction assessment process. The model shows that expectations have a positive effect on perceived performance – the capacity of customer expectation as a predictor of performance. This mostly happens when a client has a rich experience with a performer that is predictable or less variance. This model has more applications in the fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector than in sectors that include complex and heterogeneous services such as project management, because the scope of performance impact differs by product or industry.
Rational Expectations Model
This model proposes that the average expectations of a representative in a particular market are equal to the results of that market. From a macroeconomic perspective, the rational expectation model assumes that each person bases his decisions on three main factors: human rationality, information availability, and past experience. By applying these propositions to the online retailer-shopper relationship, it can be said that the expectations of the online retailer’s true performance are in the process of delivering the service. According to the rational expectation model, the overall market expectation may be greater than each customer’s sum of expectations. It is believed that the entire market is more rational and correct than individual consumers. The rational expectation model suggests that perceived performance and expectations are unimportant because they equalize each other and both have a single positive effect on satisfaction. This model is mostly used in macroeconomics, micro marketing in micro marketing and less applications in social marketing.
This model is assumed to exist. This hypothetical model assumes that customers are perceived as rational information processors who are always looking for a reason to explain or justify the results of their purchase (satisfaction or dissatisfaction). The model suggests that when the service delivery is not compatible with their previous expectations, customers go through an association process. The model also assumes that consumers often seek the cause of a product’s success or failure and associate success or failure using a causality focus (internal and external), stability, and controllability.
Kano customer satisfaction model was introduced by Noriaki Kano in 1984. The model groups the features of a product on the basis of their impact on customer perception and customer satisfaction. These groupings are important to guide design decisions as they help show how good a product is and when more is needed. This model assumes a nonlinear relationship between product performance and customer satisfaction. The model also divides product features into five groups:
1. Threshold characteristics that customers expect and what a product needs
2. The more performance features the product offers, the better. Better fulfillment results in a direct increase in customer satisfaction, and the absence of these features or poor performance will automatically lower the level of customer satisfaction.
3. Excitement attributes are traits that the customer never expected. Their presence is often very pleasing to the customer and ultimately satisfied.
4. Indifferent qualities, although they influence decision making, are negligible as they practically do not belong to any of the other attribute categories.
5. Inverse attribute means a high level of success leading to dissatisfaction on the basis that not all customers are exactly the same.
The Kano model predicts that an attribute will be transferred from one category to another over time. This transition is due to the expectations of customers and the level of performance obtained from competing brands or products. The Kano model has been widely applied in online retail work for ease of online service.